NEHA April 2024 Journal of Environmental Health

vance and exposure analyses will be reported in subsequent articles in this series.

Frequencies of Demographic and Job-Related Factors of Respondents ( N = 2,253) TABLE 1 continued

Analyses We first examined frequencies and distribu- tions of demographic variables using descrip- tive analyses. We also plotted respondent ZIP Codes onto a map using ArcGIS Pro 2020 software by Esri to visualize the geographic distribution of the EPH workforce. Next, we conducted a series of bivariate analyses to examine the relationship between demographic variables, job-related factors, and job level. We conducted cross-tabula- tions and chi-square analyses to examine the relationship between respondent demograph- ics (i.e., gender, age, years of experience, and education level) and current job level. Lastly, we conducted an ordered logistic regression analysis to understand the e‘ect of gender, age, years of experience, and educa- tion level on job level. All statistical analyses were conducted using STATA 18.


# (%)

Age (years) <20

1 (0.0)

21–29 30–39 40–49 50–59

239 (10.7) 528 (23.7) 606 (27.2) 546 (24.5) 308 (13.8)




836 (37.4) 1,314 (58.8)



13 (0.6)


2 (0.1)

Choose not to self-identify

68 (3.0)

Race and ethnicity American Indian or Alaska Native

28 (1.3) 73 (3.3) 17 (0.8) 181 (8.2) 39 (1.8) 163 (7.4) 20 (0.9)

Asian or Asian American


Asian Indian

Black or African American

Descriptive We received 2,253 survey responses, which was well above the minimum required sample size of 377 (Raosoft, 2004). Of the responses, 1,548 provided location data. Respondents who provided location data came from 49 dif- ferent states (Figure 1). Respondents came from various professional focus areas in retail food safety, with most (94.2%) representing either retail food for human consumption or retail and manufactured food processed for human consumption (Table 1). The majority of respondents (78.4%) had worked >4 years in the retail food sector. Most respondents (76.4%) identified as local (county or city) food regulatory oŸcials. We also had good represen- tation from respondents at various job levels. Our sample was highly educated, with 92.8% of respondents reporting they had obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher. More than one half of our sample (65.5%) was ≥40 years. The majority of participants (58.8%) self- identified as female. Most respondents (73.6%) identified as White, 8.2% as Black or African American, and 7.4% as Hispanic or Latinx. See Table 1 for full details on race and ethnicity. More than one half of all respondents stated that they had received their last retail food safety training within the past 6 months.

From multiple races Hispanic or Latinx

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander


1,625 (73.6)

Other/Choose not to self-identify

61 (2.8)

Highest level of education

Less than a high school degree

5 (0.2)

High school degree or equivalent (e.g., GED)

23 (1.0) 73 (3.3) 59 (2.6)

Some college, no degree

Associate’s degree Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree Doctorate degree

1,421 (63.5) 611 (27.3)

45 (2.0)

Last retail food safety training Within last 3 months

1,228 (54.9) 427 (19.1) 216 (9.7) 364 (16.3)

4–6 months

7 months–1 year

>1 year

Note. DOD = U.S. Department of Defense.

cate, “I am not familiar with this area.” The exposure measure helped us to understand participant familiarity with the knowledge areas. This approach allowed us to identify training needs by evaluating gaps in relevance

and exposure as opposed to simply identify- ing what training people wanted (Sleezer et al., 2014). Additional details about the knowledge areas we examined and the results of the rele-


April 2024 • our9-l o2 9@5ro9me9>-l e-l>4

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